By Parmeggiani Pier Luigi
This e-book goals at featuring biologists and clinicians with a compact description of the physiological manifestations of sleep which are major from the point of view of the primary of homeostasis. within the jargon of the physiological literature, the notice "homeostasis", brought via W.B. Cannon (1926), refers back to the lifestyles of a relentless nation of extracellular physique fluids with reference to their actual and chemical houses. considering the fact that general mobilephone functionality relies on the fidelity of such fluids, in multicellular animals there are various regulatory mechanisms less than the keep watch over of the crucial worried approach that act to keep up the fidelity of the inner setting. The experimental learn of homeostasis in wakefulness already printed the character and complexity of the underlying physiological mechanisms. lots of those regulatory mechanisms set off compensatory alterations in keeping with the primary of detrimental suggestions. against this, the regulate of homeostasis throughout sleep states continues to be a topic less than debate relating its physiological endurance and importance. The author's objective is to discover the categorical mechanistic proofs of the particular consistency or inconsistency of the main in numerous states of sleep. during this appreciate, there are numerous interacting physiological services that should be tested around the sleep states. the choice of the main major experimental facts is performed as a way to current an easy yet now not simplistic method of the difficulty. The e-book brings forth the proof that the systemic homeostatic rules of many physiological variables underlying mobile existence isn't energetic in a specific kingdom of the ultradian sleep cycle in mammals. It additionally indicates the theoretical and useful significance of the main of homeostasis, as a criterion of the systemic characterisation of the integrative keep an eye on of physiological services through the principal fearful process in the course of sleep in mammals.
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Additional info for Systemic Homeostasis and Poikilostasis in Sleep: Is REM Sleep a Physiological Paradox?
However, the prevalence of an unstable central autonomic command plays a substantial role in the variability of circulatory events in REM sleep (see Parmeggiani, 1994; Silvani and Lenzi, 2005). Table 2 presents general functional differences between NREM sleep and REM sleep. , 1994a), experimental data reveal that thermoregulatory vasomotion (pinna of the ear) elicited by direct thermal stimulation of the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic region during NREM sleep is suppressed during REM sleep in cats (Fig.
Besides the control of REM sleep occurrence, the physiological effects of such switch mechanisms differ according to the function and the species considered. , thermoregulation). , circulation and respiration in cats, rabbits, rats, humans). In other words, the functional controls requiring high hierarchical levels of integration are the most affected during REM sleep, whereas reflex activity is only altered but not obliterated. In the latter case, the changes depend on a deficient homeostatic modulation of reflexes by the modified central command in REM sleep.
2005; Siegel, 2005). The species-specific differences in the ultradian and circadian expression, as well as the physiological regulation of REM sleep, therefore, leave many questions unanswered concerning the functional significance of this behavioural state. The methodological criteria presented in this and the previous chapter underlie the approach to follow regarding the physiological issues addressed in the book. The presentation is far from being complete but is hopefully sufficient. The vast store of literature is presented mainly in relation to the issue of homeostasis in order to avoid overburdening the reader.
Systemic Homeostasis and Poikilostasis in Sleep: Is REM Sleep a Physiological Paradox? by Parmeggiani Pier Luigi