By Kent Wheeler Kennan
Old viewpoint -- "Strict" as opposed to "free" counterpoint -- Counterpoint as taught at the foundation of stylistic norms -- the character of counterpoint -- the one Melodic Line -- Melodic contour -- Relative significance of notes -- Harmonic implications -- The compound line -- variety -- different issues -- rules of Two-Voice Counterpoint -- caliber of person strains -- Independence among the strains -- cohesion -- Harmonic implications -- Consonance as opposed to dissonance -- Two-Voice workouts, 1:1, 2:1 -- observe opposed to notice (1:1) -- notes opposed to one (2:1) -- Chromaticism (Two Voices) -- Melodic as opposed to harmonic utilization -- Modulation -- Chromatic spelling -- pass family -- touching on two-voice chromatic workouts -- Two-Voice routines (Concluded) -- 3 notes opposed to one (3:1) -- 4 notes opposed to one (4:1) -- Syncopation (fourth species) -- 5th species -- Rhythmic task divided among the voices -- Writing of brief Two-Voice items -- shape -- decreasing or expanding the variety of voices -- assorted repetition -- Canon -- The two-voice canon on the octave -- Two-voice canons at different harmonic durations -- in regards to the writing of two-voice canons -- Canons utilizing certain units -- The followed canon -- Canons in 3 or extra voices -- The perpetual canon -- The double canon -- The enigma canon -- The spiral canon -- Invertible Counterpoint -- Inversion on the octave -- Inversion at periods except the octave -- normal rules fascinated with writing invertible counterpoint
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Among philosophers he is not alone in this. The issue can, perhaps, be pin-pointed in his very next sentence after the above quotation: If we demand from the modern physicist an answer to the question what he means by the symbol " ψ " of his calculus, and are astonished that he cannot give an answer, we ought to realize that the situation was already the same in classical physics. There the physicist could not tell us what he meant by the symbol "E" in Maxwell's equations. Perhaps, in order not to refuse an answer, he would tell us that "E" designates the electric field vector.
And what we call syntax is largely based on the analysis of the single sentence. "The assassin shot the president at the end of his speech". In the event the speech came before the shot; in the sentence, after it. Thus "epistemic time" and "linguistic time" are partly independent. e. at the beginning we have not yet spoken the end but what we are talking about, even though it may be a temporal event, is known to us throughout. Even a radio commentator cannot describe what he has not yet seen, and this is probably the nearest correspondence between epistemic time and linguistic time obtainable.
Second, in the dependence of the meaning on convention. But this is a social difference concerning the history of a word. The individual reader has not entered into any social contract — he has simply learnt what the word means, just as he has learnt what the smell of coffee means. Third, in the way in which the syntax of a word depends on that of other words on the page. But here again it is a difference of degree only. The space-time significance of thunder and rain within a short interval is likewise one of interdependence.
Counterpoint : based on eighteenth-century practice by Kent Wheeler Kennan