By Christopher N. K. Mooers
About The Product
Published through the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Coastal and Estuarine experiences Series.
Coastal Ocean Prediction is being released in the course of a interval whilst operational coastal ocean prediction platforms are rising in Europe, Asia, Australia, and North the US. a few of these structures are associated with actions of the worldwide Ocean watching method, backed by means of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic fee, international Meteorological association, United international locations Environmental software, and the overseas Council of medical Unions. the worldwide Ocean watching process is itself an emergent software of model?]based operational (i.e., continuous and governmentally sanctioned) tracking with coastal ocean, in addition to totally worldwide, elements.
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Extra info for Coastal Ocean Prediction
On the otherhand,there is an error associated with the evaluatiol/ofhorizontalgradients, the mostimportantbeingthe pressure gradientforce, in sigmacoordinates. Differingviewsasto whetheror notthisis a serious problemis represented in papersby Haney(1991)andMelloret al. (1994a). Theadvantage of thissystemisthathighresolution is obtainednearthe largedensitygradientsof importantfrontalregions. Conversely, verticalresolutionwill be poor on well mixed, continentalshelvesin the winter. A disadvantage of isopycnalmodelsis codecomplexityresultingfromthe needto cope with intersections of densitysurfaces with the seasurfaceandbottom.
The surfacelayer of the modelincorporates a Krausand Turner (1967) type bulk ]nixed layer model. Temperatureand salinity are allowedto vary in the two active layers,both of which overlie a deep quiescentlayer. The model is driven by calculatingsurfacefluxes usingdatafrom a nearbymeteorological station. In addition, the modelincorporates river runoff andthe offshoreGaspeCurrent. Figure7 shows 50 An Overview of Coastal Ocean Models mean stateof the model, computedusingrealisticforcingfor the monthsof Augustand September1990.
Examples, in which informationabout bottom topographyis used to improvethe analysis,are given by Reynaudet al. (1995) and deYounget al (1994b). Diagnosticmodelsremainimportant as a meansof extractinginformationfrom temperatureand salinity data, as well as for providinginitial conditionsfor the prognosticmodelsto be describednext. PrognosticOceanModels This discussionis restricted to three-dimensional,numerical ocean models which includea descriptionof temperatureand salinityvariations. In the following,we first identifymodelcharacteristics, andthen specificmodelswhichadopta crosssectionof thesecharacteristics.
Coastal Ocean Prediction by Christopher N. K. Mooers