By Peter B. Barker, Alberto Bizzi, Nicola De Stefano, Rao Gullapalli, Doris D. M. Lin
In vivo magnetic resonance spectrosopy (MRS) is more and more getting used within the medical surroundings, rather for neurological problems. scientific MR Spectroscopy - suggestions and functions explains either the underlying actual rules of MRS and gives a perceptive evaluation of medical MRS functions. subject matters coated comprise an creation to MRS physics, details content material of spectra from various organ platforms, spectral research equipment, advised protocols and localization thoughts, and general age- and region-related spectral adaptations within the mind. scientific functions within the mind are mentioned for mind tumors, hypoxic and ischemic damage, infectious, inflammatory and demyelinating illnesses, epilepsy, neurodegenerative issues, trauma and metabolic ailments. outdoor of the mind, concepts and purposes are mentioned for MRS within the musculosketal procedure, breast and prostate. Written by means of top MRS specialists, this can be a useful advisor for someone attracted to in vivo MRS, together with radiologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists and clinical researchers.
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Extra info for Clinical MR Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications
At this ﬁeld strength, an inversion time of around 200 ms (= T1 * ln) will selectively null the lipid signal, while most of the metabolite signal remains inverted. This method has the advantage that no assumption is made about the spatial distribution of the lipid, but may somewhat reduce metabolite SNR. [44,45] It is also possible to reduce lipid artifacts by postprocessing methods, by making use of the fact that the spatial distribution of peri-cranial lipid is known, for instance, from T1-weighted MRI scans.
Another problem when large spatial coverage is required is the diﬃculty of obtaining suﬃcient magnetic ﬁeld homogeneity over the volume of the brain. g. 140 or 280 ms). 5. 5 T. In addition to the anatomical MRI scan, spectroscopic images of choline, creatine, N-acetylaspartate, and lactate are shown, and selected spectra (showing regional variations) from various white and gray matter regions within the brain. TE spectra than for short TE, because the spectra are simpler, with ﬂatter baselines and less overlapping resonances.
G. 5 T). 9 shows an example of the SV-MRS protocol applied to a patient with an abnormal left hippocampus. Both SV and MRSI (1) Single-voxel, standard voxel size 2 × 2 × 2 cm (8 cm3). 38 cm3). 5 cm3. g. auditory canal)). When performing SV-MRS, it is useful to also collect a non-water suppressed spectrum from the 1. Hippocampus 2. Pons Cho Cho Cr 1 3 NAA NAA Cr 2 4 3. Occipital WM 4. 8. 2D-PRESS MRSI for the bilateral evaluation of temporal lobe metabolism. A PRESS box is chosen that is angulated parallel to the long-axis of the temporal lobe, at the level of the hippocampus.
Clinical MR Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications by Peter B. Barker, Alberto Bizzi, Nicola De Stefano, Rao Gullapalli, Doris D. M. Lin