By R Ingram, P Gallagher
Chemistry Made transparent is general as a middle GCSE Chemistry textual content, or because the Chemistry part of a balanced technology direction. scholars can be capable of finding issues out fast and simply one of the simplified motives. * every one double-page unfold offers with a distinct subject and comprises questions * examination point questions on the finish of every bankruptcy * Line drawings and images spotlight the real-life purposes of chemistry Chemistry Made transparent is usually prompt through collage of Cambridge foreign Examinations for IGCSE Chemistry.
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Additional resources for Chemistry Made Clear - GCSE Edition
F 12 Silicon lies directly below carbon in Group IV of the Periodic Table. The table below lists the melting and boiling points for silicon, carbon (diamond), and their oxides. pt. oc B. pt. oc 4530 3730 2400 1410 sublimes at -78°C 1610 2230 a In which state are the two elements, at room temperature (20 °C)? b Is the structure of carbon (diamond) giant covalent or molecular? c What type of structure would you expect silicon to have? Give reasons. d In which state are the two oxides, at room temperature?
The forces that hold the molecules together are weak. Their properties Molecular solids have these properties: 1 They have low melting points and boiling points-much lower than ionic solids do. In fact many molecular substances melt, and even boil, below room temperature, so are liquids or gases at room temperature. Here are some examples: Substance oxygen chlorine water naphthalene Melting point/°C Boiling point/ oc -219 -101 0 80 -183 -35 100 218 Some molecular substances and their state at room temperature: Solids The reason for these low values is that the molecules are held together by only weak forces, so not much heat energy is needed to separate them.
The tight packing causes outer electrons to get separated from their atoms, and the result is a lattice of ions in a sea of electrons. ;:• I• rf' ~ The copper ions are held together by their attraction to the electrons between them. ) Their properties t The regular arrangement of ions results in a crystal of copper. This picture shows copper magnified 100 times. The dark lines are the crystal edges. A piece of copper wire contains millions of tiny crystals joined together. Metals have these properties: 1 They are good conductors of electricity, because the free electrons can move through the lattice, carrying charge.
Chemistry Made Clear - GCSE Edition by R Ingram, P Gallagher