By Peter Sonnenfeld
About The Product
Published via the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Short classes in Geology Series.
This direction is designed to provide basic strategies and constraints of evaporitic mineral precipitation in numerous depositional environments, a dialogue of the focus of attendant accent accumulations of clastics, base metals and hydrocarbons, an built-in evaluate of epigenetic alteration of evaporite deposits, and a scientific research of old evaporite basin configurations.
These notes current case histories of present evaporite deposition within the desire that they're going to give you the keys to a greater knowing of historic salt basins.
The information provided right here basically depend on basins studied via the writer and his coworkers. even if this selection might sound a little bit constrained to a couple readers acquainted with classical versions, the examples proven right here hide the most present-day geological settings. in addition, observations on pre-evaporitic deposits have been additionally brought.
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Extra info for Brines and Evaporites
7. High-gravity crude oils in caprocksof Miocene or Jurassicevaporiteshave been taken to be immature on account of their low vitrinite reflectivity index. While evaporites are impermeable to water, only anhydrites are impermeable to hydrocarbons,unless fractured. Crude oil moving through rock salt increases its content of resinous and asphaltenecompounds,alkanes increase their chain length, and thus the APl-gravity is lowered; moving through potash beds they change their specific gravity even more rapidly.
An alternating sequenceof potash and halite seams frequently contains red carnallite only in the top couplet; all other potash seams have been converted to red sylvites before compaction by brines percolating during the subsequenthalite precipitation phase. The extreme rarity of primary hematite-bearing red halite confirms the low Eh and high pH values of the precipitating brine, as bivalent iron is unable under those conditions to convert to the trivalent variety. There is no surface affinity of halite to hematite, and pink or red halite is confined to the facies of leaching of either clays or carnallites, in that iron oxides were accepted either from nearby clays or both potassium and magnesium chlorides were leached from a red carnallitite.
Beneaththe interface to surfacewaters(Fig. 8). pH readingsin thesesylvinitesare still higher than in the carnallitesby almosttwo ordersof magnitude. Primarywhite carnallitecouldform whereorganiccompounds are absent;in that case,someiron chloridewasableto substitute for MgCI 2 in the crystallattice. The solubility of iron increases in concentrating MgC12-solutions. It couldthusnot havebeenprecipitated in contactwith the atmosphere. It oughtto be mentionedthat white carnalliteoften containssylvite cores,indicatingthat it is the productof conversionby magnesium chloridebrines.
Brines and Evaporites by Peter Sonnenfeld