By J.A.E Spaan, Ruben Coronel, Jacques M. T. de Bakker, Antonio Zaza
The improvement of a bio-engineered pacemaker is of considerable scientific and in addition medical curiosity since it grants to beat a number of obstacles of digital pacemakers. additionally it may possibly resolution the longstanding query of even if the advanced constitution of the sinus node is certainly a prerequisite for trustworthy pacemaking, or less complicated buildings could paintings as well.
This e-book provides an outline of the present state of the art of making a bio-engineered pacemaker. It indicates the techniques to increase of genetic and cell-based engineering equipment compatible to enforce them with protection and balance. It additionally illuminates the issues that have to be solved prior to bio-pacemaking will be thought of for medical use.
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Additional resources for Biopacemaking
38 E. C. Cho 7 Conversion of Non-excitable Cells to Self-contained Biological Pacemakers Most gene-or cell-based approaches in creating a biological pacemaker center around the idea of inducing spontaneous pacemaker activity in excitable but quiescent myocytes by adding pacemaker currents. An alternative is to create a pacemaker activity from non-excitable cells. We hypothesized that a non-excitable cell could be converted into a self-contained pacemaker by heterologous expression of a minimal complement of speciﬁc ion channels .
Our fusion-induced biological pacemakers were stable for at least 3 weeks and functional in less than 1 day post-injection as revealed by the electrocardiography. Furthermore, straight injection of hMSCs  or hESCs  into heart does not guarantee that the injected cells will remain at the site of injection. The fusion approach implants the biological 36 E. C. Cho pacemakers to the site of injection by cell fusion to cardiomyocytes. Therefore, the cell fusion approach allows us to create a biological pacing at a speciﬁc site by design rather than by chance.
It seems sufﬁcient Embryological Development of Pacemaker Hierarchy and Membrane Currents 23 when biological pacemakers aim at responsiveness to humoural factors not neural factors in order to be able to cope with exercise. References 1. Argüello C, Alanis J, Pantoja O, Valenzuela B (1986) Electrophysiological and ultrastructural study of the atrioventricular canal during the development of the chick embryo. J Mol Cell Cardiol 18:499–510 2. Argüello C, Alanis J, Valenzuela B (1988) The early development of the atrioventricular node and bundle of His in the embryonic chick heart.
Biopacemaking by J.A.E Spaan, Ruben Coronel, Jacques M. T. de Bakker, Antonio Zaza