By I. M. Kutasov
The aim of utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is to provide in a transparent and concise shape equipment of using the information of temperature surveys in deep boreholes in addition to the result of box, laboratory and analytical investigations in geothermics to a large viewers. even though a few features of the topic of this publication were mentioned in different prior books and various papers, utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is the 1st e-book in this subject on hand to the petroleum engineering neighborhood. the target of the publication is to offer the country of information and prediction of downhole and formations temperatures in the course of good drilling, good finishing touch, shut-in and creation. utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is meant for drilling engineers (impact of increased temperatures on good drilling and finishing touch expertise, Arctic drilling), construction engineers (temperature regime of construction, injection and geothermal partitions, Arctic production), reservoir engineers (temperature box of reservoirs, thermal homes of formations and formation fluids), good logging engineers (interpretation of electric resistance, dust density, and temperature logs), and geophysicists and geologists (interpretation of geophysical facts, calculation of the terrestrial warmth circulate, reconstruction of previous climates).
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Additional resources for Applied Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers
The geothermal gradient for any formation's layer (I'~) can be determined from the condition: r'n~, = q. Let us assume that the area of the given region is A, then the total amount of heat per unit of time transferred to the Earth's surface will be Q = Aq. Suppose now that near the wellbore a body of anomalous thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y - a salt dome was discovered. In a this case the increase of the heat flow density (HFD) above salt dome will occur. At the same time a corresponding reduction of HFD will occur at some distances from the salt dome (Fig.
1973). 5 by elastic p r o p e r t i e s of enclosed air bubbles (Tsytovich, 1975). T h e e x p e r i m e n t s showed t h a t the m o d u l u s of n o r m a l elasticity of frozen soils is in tens and h u n d r e d s t i m e s larger t h a n those of unfrozen soils. T h e integrity and s t a b i l i t y of pipelines, derricks, and f o u n d a t i o n s of s t r u c t u r e s very m u c h d e p e n d s on the processes of frost heave and surface subsidence. B o t h frost heave and surface subsidence are a s s o c i a t e d with v o l u m e changes ( a b o u t 9%) at ice-water-ice t r a n s i t i o n .
O5 I000# / > / /oe 9 3000~ z%4__ / / / I ..... t___ o 0 } ,... 5. Influence of fluid velocity on the longitudinal thermal dispersity of a porous medium (Bia and Comparnous, 1975). 595 x R a ~ shows the effect of heat convection on the heat transfer. An example of the effective thermal conductivity increase with fluid velocity is shown in Fig. 5. 4. 33) where P r is the Prandtl number, R a is the Rayleigh number, u is kinematic viscosity, a is thermal diffusivity, g is gravitational acceleration, /3 coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion, rl is the inner radius (outside radius of the drill pipe), r2 is the outer radius (inside radius of the casing or well radius), and A T is the radial temperature difference.
Applied Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers by I. M. Kutasov