By C. E. Crouthamel, F. Adams, R. Dams, R. Belcher and H. Freiser (Auth.)
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Additional info for Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry
This rapid decay time will probably not be widely exploited because the g^mma-ray scintillation efficiency is only 5 per cent of that of sodium iodide-thallium activated at room temperature. A very high light output (50 per cent more than sodium iodide-thallium activated) can be obtained with calcium iodide-europium activated. 2 per cent for cesium137 was already reported for this detector. (8) For the measurements of very corrosive liquids the use of calcium fluoride-europium activated has some advantages.
40 APPLIED GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETRY Therefore for gamma-ray spectrometry it is desirable to minimize the mass of the can. The presence of characteristic K X-rays often aids in the identification of isotopes. For this reason it is desirable that the can should transmit X-rays having energies as low as 6 keV. As Fig. 4 shows, aluminum is more applicable than copper. 005 in. thick aluminum can is commonly used. ) FIG. 4. X-ray transmission of various metal windows. Because of the difficulties associated with the fabrication of beryllium it is only used in the canning of very thin crystals (1-4 mm), which are particularly efficient for the measure ment of X- and gamma-rays up to 80 keV.
The photomultiplier noise must be kept as low as possible. Care has to be taken to ensure linearity over a wide signal voltage range and to prevent fatigue and gain shift effects. What performances on these different points may reasonably be expected and what precautions must be taken to achieve them will be discussed in this section. Finally, a brief discussion on the processing of photomultipliers is included. A. 93) have high refractive indices in the wavelength region of their luminescent emission.
Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry by C. E. Crouthamel, F. Adams, R. Dams, R. Belcher and H. Freiser (Auth.)