By Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche
The creation of X-ray computed tomography (CT) 25 years in the past revolutionized scientific imaging; X-ray CT itself supplied the 1st transparent cross-sectional photographs of the human physique, with monstrous distinction among varieties of smooth tissue. the iconic legacy of CT is, despite the fact that, the spur that it gave to the following advent of tomographic imaging options into diagnostic nuclear medication and the terribly quick improvement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over this era.
This ebook is a non-mathematical creation to the foundations underlying sleek scientific imaging, taking tomography as its primary subject matter. the 1st 3 chapters hide the final rules of tomography, a survey of the atomic and nuclear physics which underpins sleek imaging, and a evaluate of the most important concerns fascinated about radiation safety. the next chapters deal in flip with X-ray radiography, gamma imaging, MRI and ultrasound. The scientific position of diagnostic imaging is illustrated within the ultimate bankruptcy by utilizing fictional scientific histories. 3 appendices supply a extra mathematical heritage to the tomographic approach, the foundations of mathematical Fourier equipment, and the maths of MRI.
This revised variation comprises new introductory sections at the suitable physics of molecules quite often, and water, specifically. each bankruptcy now has a desk of key issues with cross-references to different sections. a number of figures have additionally been revised.
The booklet is meant to supply a huge introductory heritage to tomographic imaging for 2 teams of readers: the physics or engineering undergraduate taking into consideration focusing on clinical physics, and the scientific scholar or clinician utilizing tomographic ideas in study and scientific perform.
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Additional info for An introduction to the principles of medical imaging
The relative number of X-ray photons that survive the trip through the box is here represented by P1(1) = 10. Each little volume will attenuate the beam by an amount determined by the local attenuation, so that each number in the projection represents the total attenuation through the box, along a particular line, the sum of box numbers along that line. P1(2), the second number in the first projection, is obtained by shifting the beam by one column to the right. The different projections arise from different choices of beam direction.
3. More complex filter functions are used in gamma imaging in order to remove the effects of noise on the final image. 4. 6, using the filtered backprojection method. The model consists of a small homogeneous disc, and a toroid. Different values of ‘attenuation coefficient’ correspond to different greys. The reconstruction has been interrupted after 10, 30, 127 projections, obtained at intervals of 1…2°, have been added. A crude reconstruction of the form of the phantom is clearly visible even after 30 projections.
In X-ray CT the projections are lines through the origin of K-space and so the complete sampling is achieved by assembling a set of ‘spokes’ with a set of ‘beads’ on each spoke. Each bead corresponds to one value of KX, KY and at each of these points there is one value of F(KX, KY). The complete set constitutes a sampled version of the 2D Fourier transform of µ(X, Y ). In MRI there is considerably more flexibility in the way in which K-space is actually sampled. Conventionally in MRI, the values of F(KX, KY) profiles are collected along lines parallel to KX at constant values of KY, each projection then corresponds to a different value of KY .
An introduction to the principles of medical imaging by Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche