By Roy W. Menninger, John C. Nemiah
The background of psychiatry is complicated, reflecting diversified origins in mythology, cult ideals, astrology, early medication, legislations faith, philosophy, and politics. This complexity has generated enormous debate and an expanding outflow of ancient scholarship, starting from the enthusiastic meliorism of pre-World warfare II histories, to the iconoclastic revisionism of the Nineteen Sixties, to extra concentrated reports, reminiscent of the background of asylums and the validity and efficacy of Freudian concept. This quantity, meant as a successor to the centennial historical past of yank psychiatry released via the yank Psychiatric organization in 1944, summarizes the numerous occasions and techniques of the half-century following international warfare II. so much of this historical past is written by means of clinicians who have been imperative figures in it.
In huge phrases, the historical past of psychiatry after the struggle could be seen because the tale of a biking series, moving from a predominantly organic to a psychodynamic point of view and again againвЂ”all possibly en path to an final view that's actually integratedвЂ”and interacting the entire whereas with public perceptions, expectancies, exasperations, and disappointments.
In six sections, Drs. Roy Menninger and John Nemiah and their colleagues conceal either the continuities and the dramatic alterations of this era. the 1st 4 sections of the e-book are approximately chronological. the 1st part makes a speciality of the struggle and its effect on psychiatry; the second one reports postwar development of the sector (psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, psychiatric schooling, and psychosomatic medicine); the 3rd recounts the increase of clinical empiricism (biological psychiatry and nosology); and the fourth discusses public attitudes and perceptions of public psychological wellbeing and fitness coverage, deinstitutionalization, antipsychiatry, the patron circulation, and controlled care. The 5th part examines the advance of specialization and differentiation, exemplified through baby and adolescent psychiatry, geriatric psychiatry, dependancy psychiatry, and forensic psychiatry. The concluding part examines ethics, and ladies and minorities in psychiatry.
Anyone attracted to psychiatry will locate this booklet a desirable learn.
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Extra info for American Psychiatry After World War II, 1944-1994
S. experience in managing substance abuse in Vietnam are that treatment should be in-country to prevent an evacuation syndrome and that the factors that prevent breakdown in general—cohesion, effective leadership, and good morale—may protect soldiers from substance abuse. For example, the Australians serving in Vietnam did not have significant personnel losses from substance abuse (Spragg 1972, 1982).
Like the total neuropsychiatric incidence rate, the psychosis rate also peaked after active combat. Previous experience had shown only minor increases in psychoses during wartime. In both combat and noncombat situations, the rate of psychosis had remained stable at around 2 or 3 per 1,000 troops per year (Glass 1973). Hayes (1969) suggested two hypotheses to explain the increase in psychoses. One was the increased precipitation of schizophrenia and other psychotic reactions in predisposed persons by psychoactive drugs.
The majority of neuropsychiatric cases in low-intensity combat present a picture similar to what occurs among rear-echelon troops in wartime and among garrison troops during peacetime (venereal disease, alcohol and drug abuse, and disciplinary problems, often related to personality disorders). It is not surprising, then, that various authors have called such casualties “guerrilla neurosis” (Crocq 1969; Crocq et al. 1985), “garrison casualties” ( Jones 1983), “disorders of loneliness” ( Jones 1967), and “nostalgic casualties” ( Jones 1982, 1985a, 1985b).
American Psychiatry After World War II, 1944-1994 by Roy W. Menninger, John C. Nemiah