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Mills Science 309, 1040 -1044 (2005) 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Notes: All economic values inflation-adkusted to 2004 levels. Losses from Munich Re NatCat Service; premiums from Swiss Re, Sigma. Values for 2005 are LBNL estimates.

1901-1950 1951-1978 1979-2003 Frequency Temperature Source: IPCC 4th Assessment (2007) Rare Extremes Cause Most of the Damages & Insured Losses The European heat wave of Summer 2003 Source: Schar et al, Nature, v. 427, 2004. Small-scale, Indirect Events and Consequences Often Overlooked Events Greater combined impacts than CATs in an average year • • • • • • • • • • • Drought Hail Heat waves Ice Storms Lightning Sea-level rise Thunderstorms Tornados Torrential rains Wildfire Winterstorms Consequences • Blackouts • Coastal erosion • Crop/fishery damages • Equipment breakdown • Eroded air quality • Eroded water quality • Flooding • Health impacts • Mudslides • Property loss • Sinkholes/Subsidence • Weather-related vehicle accidents Temperature-Related Insurance Loss Experience Lightning-related claims accelerate with temperature Each symbol represents a lightning storm event Source: Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co.

7 billion 10 5 0 1980 Source: E. Mills Science 309, 1040 -1044 (2005) 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Notes: All economic values inflation-adkusted to 2004 levels. Losses from Munich Re NatCat Service; premiums from Swiss Re, Sigma. Values for 2005 are LBNL estimates.

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A Scheme For Global Warming Mitigation Via Controlled Enhancement Of The Reflectivity Of Maritime Clouds by Dr John Latham


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