By Howard I. Kushner
Over a century and a part in the past, a French healthcare professional said the weird habit of a tender aristocratic lady who may unexpectedly, unexpectedly, erupt in a startling healthy of obscene shouts and curses. identical to the Marquise de Dampierre echoes during the many years because the emblematic instance of an disorder that at the present time represents one of many fastest-growing diagnoses in North the USA. Tourette syndrome is a suite of behaviors, together with recurrent ticcing and involuntary shouting (sometimes cursing) in addition to obsessive-compulsive activities. The interesting background of this syndrome unearths how cultural and scientific assumptions have decided and noticeably altered its characterization and therapy from the early 19th century to the current. A Cursing mind? lines the frustrating class of Tourette syndrome via 3 unique yet overlapping tales: that of the claims of clinical wisdom, that of sufferers' reviews, and that of cultural expectancies and assumptions. previous researchers asserted that the weird ticcing and impromptu vocalizations have been psychological--resulting from sustained undesirable behavior or loss of strength of will. this day, sufferers showing those behaviors are visible as struggling with a neurological illness and usually are taken care of with drug treatment. even if present medical learn exhibits that Tourette's is an natural disease, this pioneering background of the syndrome reminds us to be skeptical of scientific orthodoxies in order that we may well remain open to clean understandings and more desirable interventions. (20001209)
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Extra resources for A Cursing Brain? The Histories of Tourette Syndrome
Suggesting, albeit circumspectly and ambiguously, that the marquise was treated by Charcot lent clinical legitimacy to an example that otherwise would have been merely anecdotal. Despite the numerous citations of the case of the Marquise de Dampierre, a careful reader will quickly discover that every clinical statement made about her can be found in Itard’s 1825 account. 44 In particular, Gilles de la Tourette had been fascinated by the relationship between tic disorders and jumping and startle behaviors reported in Malaysia, Siberia, and Maine.
Some of the most important names in North American medicine participated in these discussions, including Weir Mitchell, M. 69 The new science of bacteriology spurred on this intense interest. ”71 By 1892, physician Henry P. Cooke, citing the works of the Germans Laufenauer and Koch, reported that the same “virus, affecting the serous surfaces may produce tissue changes and a chain of clinical phenomena constituting rheumatism; and the same virus affecting certain areas or tracts in the nerve centers, either directly as an irritant or indirectly through the agency of reºexes, or through products of its action on other tissues, may originate the irregular muscular movements and associate disturbances .
Cadet de Gassicourt of the Hôpital des Infants and a member of the Académie de Médecine speciªcally rejected Charcot’s assertions that there was no connection between “rheumatism” and tic disorders. Although “the rheumatic . . etiological connection [with chorea] has never been accepted without contest,” wrote Cadet de Gassicourt, “the work of M. ”65 By the 1890s the connection between rheumatic fever and chorea was so well established that one is hard-pressed to ªnd much dissent in North American and European (including French) medical journals.
A Cursing Brain? The Histories of Tourette Syndrome by Howard I. Kushner